LISTING 2

Item Activity Possible Impacts
1(a) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the generation of electricity where
    1. the electricity output is 20 megawatts or more; or
    2. the elements of the facility cover a combined area in excess of 1 hectare;
Construction may have the following impacts:
  • physical degradation of ecosystems;
  • visual impacts; and
  • disturbance of cultural heritage.

Subsequent to construction, impacts from different methods of electricity generation may include:
  • A coal based facilitymay result in significant air pollution.
  • A hydroelectric facility (using water by building a dam or diverting a stream) may impact on stream flows.
  • A wind-energy facility (using wind turbines or windmills), could cause visual and audio impacts.
  • Powerlines for carrying the electricity, may result in bird deaths through collision/electrocution.
1(b) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. nuclear reaction including the production, enrichment, processing, reprocessing, storage or disposal of nuclear fuels, radioactive products and waste;
Impacts will depend on the type and size of nuclear plant (recently a pebble bed reactor was proposed in South Africa).
Impacts associated with construction may include:
  • degradation of ecosystems;
  • biodiversity destruction;and
  • social impacts caused by influx of workers etc.

Key impacts relate to safety and contamination of surrounding ecosystems, particularly during storage and disposal of fuel and waste. Further impacts could result from decommissioning i.e. improper processing and storage of contaminated materials.
1(c) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the above ground storage of a dangerous good, including petrol, diesel, liquid petroleum gas or paraffin, in containers with a combined capacity of 1 000 cubic metres or more at any one location or site including the storage of one or more dangerous goods, in a tank farm;
Impacts may include:
  • contamination of water, soil and air from seepage or spillage into ground water;
  • health impacts on nearby inhabitants and/or ecosytems and organisms; and
  • potential fire, spills and or explosions during transportation of hazardous materials to and from the site.
1(d) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the refining of gas, oil and petroleum products;
Improper storage of waste products could result in water contamination and impacts to human health. Additional impacts include:
  • air pollution; and
  • soil and ground water contamination.

There is also a possibility of clean up costs after decommissioning.
1(e) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. any process or activity which requires a permit or license in terms of legislation governing the generation or release of emissions, pollution, effluent or waste and which is not identified in Government Notice No. R. 386 of 2006;
Impacts may include:
  • water and soil contamination; and
  • air pollution and cumulative impacts on human health.
1(f) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the recycling, re-use, handling, temporary storage or treatment of general waste with a throughput capacity of 50 tons or more daily average measured over a period of 30 days;
Possible impacts may include:
  • visual impacts;
  • odour;
  • contamination of surrounding environments from inadequately stored waste (e.g. seepage of waste into groundwater);
  • increase in pests such as flies and rats;
  • impacts from infrastructure for transporting waste to and from the facility (e.g. roads, pipelines which could leak);
  • decrease in property values adjacent to the storage site; and
  • traffic congestion as a result of transport to and from the site.
1(g) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the use, recycling, handling, treatment, storage or final disposal of hazardous waste;
Impacts may include the contamination of water, soil and air from seepage or spillage of hazardous waste during transport handling or storage.

Seepage or spillage may be hazardous to the environment and human health.

1(h) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the manufacturing, storage or testing of explosives, including ammunition, but excluding licensed retail outlets and the legal end use of such explosives;
Impacts may include:
  • noise pollution;
  • disturbance to neighbouring environments and organisms;
  • injury or death to people; and
  • air and water pollution in the manufacturing and storage processes.
1(i) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the extraction or processing of natural gas including gas from landfill sites;
Impacts may include:
  • damage to ecosystems;
  • habitat destruction both from the construction and operation of facilities for extracting, processing and transporting natural gas;
  • water and air pollution; and
  • safety issues from improper handling (e.g. explosions).
1(j) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the bulk transportation of dangerous goods using pipelines, funiculars or conveyors with a throughput capacity of 50 tons or 50 cubic metres or more per day
Impacts will vary depending upon the nature of the dangerous goods being handled.
1(k) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the landing, parking and maintenance of aircraft, excluding unpaved landing strips shorter than 1,4 kilometres in length, but including
    • airports;
    • runways;
    • waterways; or
    • structures for engine testing;
Both the construction of the site and the supporting infrastructure development may cause impacts including:
  • pollution from maintenance activities (fuel and oil spillage etc);
  • harm to birds from collisions with aircraft;
  • air/noise pollution from air/vehicular traffic; and
  • traffic congestion and additional impacts from transport of passengers and cargo associated with the facilities.
1(l) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the transmission and distribution of above ground electricity with a capacity of 120 kilovolts or more;
The construction of the powerlines and associated facilities may have the following impacts:
  • disturbance of vegetation;
  • destruction of archeological resources;
  • visual; and
  • social impacts.

Additionally, powerlines may increase bird deaths through collision and electrocution.
1(m) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. marine telecommunications;
May result in disturbance and degradation of sensitive marine environments through installation of cables under the ocean.
1(n) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the transfer of 20 000 cubic metres or more water between water catchments or impoundments per day;
If the water is piped or channelled, impacts on the environment from construction of pipelines and associated facilities may include:
  • stream flow reduction and the associated harm to plants, animals, and ecosystems; and
  • influx of alien and predatory species and diseases to the catchment area from water transfer. These species often spread quickly through the new water environment causing damage to existing species.
1(o) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the final disposal of general waste covering an area of 100 square metres or more or 200 cubic metres or more of airspace;
Improper management of waste could lead to groundwater pollution and air pollution.

Additional impacts may include:
  • visual impacts;
  • odour impacts;
  • disease transmitted by scavengers on the dump (birds, rats, flies etc); and
  • increased vehicular traffic from transport of waste to the site may result in the spillage of waste.
1(p) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the treatment of effluent, wastewater or sewage with an annual throughput capacity of 15 000 cubic metres or more;
The impacts will depend on how the sewage sludge that results from waste water treatment is managed and the content of the sludge.
Impacts may include:
  • disease;
  • odour; and
  • pollution through leakage into the groundwater.
1(q) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the incineration, burning, evaporation, thermal treatment, roasting or heat sterilisation of waste or effluent, including the cremation of human or animal tissue;
Impacts may include:
  • air pollution in the form of increased particulate matter and release of other contaminants, depending on what is being burned; and
  • odour impacts from the storage and the burning of the waste.
1(r) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the microbial deactivation, chemical sterilisation or non-thermal treatment of waste or effluent;
 
1(s) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. rail transportation, excluding railway lines and sidings in industrial areas and underground railway lines in mines, but including
    1. railway lines;
    2. stations; or
    3. shunting yards;
Impacts from the construction of rail facilities may include:
  • habitat loss and fragmentation; and
  • noise pollution.
1(t) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. any purpose where lawns, playing fields or sports tracks covering an area of 10 hectares or more, will be established.
The construction of sports fields reduces biodiversity by replacing the natural vegetation with a grass. Impacts may include:
  • increase in water usage and water pollution caused by herbicides and fertilizers;
  • reduction in public open space;
  • light pollution if facilities are used at night,
  • increased impacts to plant and animal habitat from increased human entry into the area; and
  • introduction of invasive alien species.
2 Any development activity, including associated structures and infrastructure, where the total area of the developed area is, or is intended to be, 20 hectares or more The impacts of a large development will vary with the site and the development proposal.

Impacts may include:
  • habitat destruction;
  • ecosystem degradation;
  • further threats to Red Data species;
  • introduction of invasive alien species;
  • water pollution in the form of sewage, fertilizer, and soil;
  • increased demands on scarce water resources; and
  • social and health impacts caused by an influx of workers into the area.

Additional impacts may result from:
  • construction of roads and infrastructure to transport people and goods to and from the facility;
  • water provision; and
  • waste management and sewerage during use of facility.
3 The construction of filling stations, including associated structures and infrastructure, or any other facility for the underground storage of a dangerous good, including petrol, diesel, liquid petroleum gas or paraffin. Construction of a filling station could cause groundwater pollution from leaking storage tanks. All filling stations have some amount of leakage, both from underground storage tanks and spillage on the ground. Containment measures to reduce the spread of the spill are needed eg berms and sandtraps.

An additional impact will be habitat loss due to construction.

4 The extraction of peat. Reduction of an ecosystem that provides an essential service (CO2 sequestration). Carbon stored in peat bogs can be re-released into the atmosphere when peat is extracted.
Extraction of peat causes the loss of a critically endangered vegetation type (only 1% of our wetlands are peat)
5 The route determination of roads and design of associated physical infrastructure; including roads that have not yet been built for which routes have been determined before the publication of this notice and which has not been authorised by a competent authority in terms of the Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations, 2006 made under section 24(5) of the Act and published in Government Notice No. R. 385 of 2006; where
  1. it is a national road as defined in section 40 of the South African National Roads Agency Limited and National Roads Act, 1998 (Act No. 7 of 1998);
  2. it is a road administered by a provincial authority;
  3. the road reserve is wider than 30 metres; or
  4. the road will cater for more than one lane of traffic in both directions.
Road construction and the supporting infrastructure construction (e.g. toll booths) may have the following impacts:
  • ecosystem degradation by causing a barrier between ecosystems;
  • increases road strikes of birds and wildlife (especially slow-moving organisms like frogs and tortoises);
  • soil erosion;
  • contaminated water run off; and
  • interruption of ecosystem processes especially if the road is built through sensitive areas (i.e streams, wetland or alongside coastal strip).

Socio-economic opportunities and impacts may also result. Increased access to remote areas may bring economic benefits but may also result in transmission of diseases like HIV, degradation of natural areas due to increased human visitation and negative impacts on local livelihoods and culture.

6 The construction of a dam where the highest part of the dam wall, as measured from the outside toe of the wall to the highest part of the wall, is 5 metres or higher or where the high-water mark of the dam covers an area of 10 hectares or more. Impacts may include:
  • reductions in stream flow;
  • increased evaporation;
  • increase in water temperature;
  • loss of habitat;
  • impact on endangered species (fish and others that need rivers to be free-flowing); and
  • changes to water flow and water temperature below the dam. Silt is trapped behind the dam, leading to bank erosion and collapse downstream. Standing water behind the dam could provide a breeding ground for mosquitoes and associated disease-carrying organisms.
7 Reconnaissance, exploration, production and mining as provided for in the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act, 2002 (Act No. 28 of 2002), as amended in respect of such permits and rights. Mining activities (prospecting, mining, and mining closure) may have the following impacts:
  • degradation of ecosystems by destroying and changing habitat;
  • water pollution from waste dumps;
  • increased water and energy usage;
  • noise and air pollution from transport and processing infrastructure;
  • cultural and socio-economic impacts on surrounding inhabitants (benefits from mining are rarely shared with local communities); and
  • influx of people could result in inflow of HIV/AIDS, other STDs, human transmittable diseases, prostitution, drugs, breakdown of social/cultural norms etc.
8 In relation to permits and rights granted in terms of 7 above, or any other right granted in terms of previous mineral legislation, the undertaking of any reconnaissance exploration, production or mining related activity or operation within a exploration, production or mining area, as defined in terms of section of 1 of the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act, 2002 (Act No. 28 of 2002).  
9 Construction or earth moving activities in the sea or within 100 metres inland of the high-water mark of the sea, excluding an activity listed in item 2 of Government Notice No. R. 386 of 2006 but including construction or earth moving activities in respect of
  1. facilities associated with the arrival and departure of vessels and the handling of cargo;
  2. piers;
  3. inter- and sub-tidal structures for entrapment of sand;
  4. breakwater structures;
  5. rock revetments and other stabilising structures;
  6. coastal marinas;
  7. coastal harbours
Impacts may include:
  • interruption of dynamic coastal ecosystem processes (dune migration);
  • long-shore sand migration could affect the broader area (i.e. the entire Cape peninsula has a complex linked sediment migration regime and interruption at one location could result in negative impacts around the entire peninsula);
  • destruction and damage to sensitive coastal vegetation;
  • immediate and long-term degradation of sensitive and essential breeding and nursery habitats for coastal and marine organisms (e.g. dunes, beaches, estuaries; coral reefs/seagrass beds) which could lead to long-term reductions of commercially important species (fish, shellfish etc);
  • visual impacts;
  • degradation from increased human traffic and resultant pollution in coastal areas;
  • any hard structures (stabilising walls, embankments, buildings etc) will impact negatively on ecosystem processes which are very complex and dynamic in coastal areas;
  • increased pollution can also lead to eutrophication (dead zones in water due to lack of oxygen) and harmful algal bloom events in coastal waters;
  • construction will impact on ecosystems;
  • pollution from maintenance activities (oil, heavy metals etc);
  • introduction of invasive alien species from ballast water and other areas of vessels (i.e. mussels etc adhering to the bottom of boats);
  • increased traffic congestion and resultant air/ noise and water pollution; and
  • pollution from vessels (oil, litter, chemicals, cargo if vessels are grounded).
10 Any process or activity identified in terms of section 53(1) of the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act, 2004 (Act No. 10 of 2004).