LISTING 1
Item Activity Possible impacts
1 The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for – Depending on the size, all infrastructure development could result in:
  • physical impacts on ecosystems;
  • visual impact;
  • disturbance of cultural heritage (archaeological and historical remains)
  • habitat loss;
  • habitat fragmentation;
  • species movements and disturbance of populations;
  • introduction of invasive alien species; and
  • increased run-off from surface areas (contamination by petro-chemicals).


Initial construction often leads to ribbon development or additional construction with increasing cumulative effects

 

1(a) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the generation of electricity where the electricity output is more than 10 megawatts but less than 20 megawatts;
Construction of a facility to generate electricity might have the following impacts:
  • physical impacts on ecosystems;
  • visual impacts; and
  • disturbance of cultural heritage.

Once the facility is constructed, impacts of generating electricity may occur. Different methods of generating electricity will have different impacts.
  • A coal-based facility may result in significant air pollution.
  • A hydroelectric facility (using water by building a dam or diverting a stream) will impact on stream flows.
  • A wind-based facility (based on wind turbines or windmills), could cause visual impacts.
  • Power lines for carrying the electricity may result in bird deaths through collisions/electrocutions.
1(b) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the above ground storage of 1 000 tons or more but less than 100 000 tons of ore;

Depending on the ore type (e.g. gold, platinum, iron ore etc), pollution of water bodies (underground aquifers and groundwater) through seepage/runoff is likely. Water pollution may also negatively impact human health.
In addition, sediment from the ore pile may blow into nearby wetlands/rivers/sensitive habitats causing degradation.

 

1(c) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the storage of 250 tons or more but less than 100 000 tons of coal;

Pollution of water bodies (underground aquifers and groundwater) through seepage/runoff is probable. This water pollution may negatively impact human health.
In addition, sediment from the coal may blow into wetlands/rivers/sensitive habitats causing degradation.

Contamination from acid runoff from coal leaching into the environment

 

1(d) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. resorts, lodges, hotels or other tourism and hospitality facilities in a protected area contemplated in the National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, 2003 (Act No. 57 of 2003);
Impacts may include:
  • disturbance of cultural resources,
  • harm to species and ecosystems from pre, during and post construction phases.
  • Ongoing degradation from human impacts may occur, especially if tourists behave irresponsibly or if facilities are built inappropriately (i.e. inadequate waste/sewage management facilities, catering for too many visitors, construction in pristine areas which destroys the natural value of the area, increased demand for more services/infrastructure such as electricity).
  • Additional impacts on ecosystems may occur from the construction of roads and other infrastructure to transport people and goods.
1(e) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. any purpose where lawns, playing fields or sports tracks covering an area of more than three hectares, but less than 10 hectares, will be established;
Impacts may include:
  • disturbance/destruction of cultural resources;
  • harm to species and ecosystems from pre, during and post construction phases.

Ongoing degradation from human impacts may occur especially if spectators behave irresponsibly or if facilities are built inappropriately (including inadequate waste/sewage management facilities, catering for too many visitors, building in pristine areas which destroys the natural value of the area, and an increased demand for services/infrastructure eg electricity).

Additional impacts on ecosystem may result from the construction of roads and other infrastructure to transport people and goods. Loss of habitats, especially as such facilities are often located in pristine areas.

As above but additional impacts of water pollution may result from the use of pesticides and fertilizers on the facitlites.

 

1(f) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. sport spectator facilities with the capacity to hold 8 000 spectators or more;
The construction of sports fields reduces biodiversity by replacing the natural vegetation with grass.

An increase in water usage and water pollution from herbicides and fertilizers may occur.

Additional impacts may include a reduction in public open space, light pollution if facilities are used at night, and increased impacts to plant and animal habitat from increased human activity in the area.

Construction of roads and infrastructure to transport people and goods to and from the facility, water provision, waste management and sewerage during use of facility may also result in impacts.

 

1(g) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the slaughter of animals with a product throughput of 10 000 kilograms or more per year;
Impacts may include:
  • diseases and pests resulting from improper handling of animal by-products;
  • contamination of surrounding ecosystems by chemicals for cleaning equipment if not disposed of properly;
  • demand for supporting road infrastructure due to the transportation of animals to the facility and dead flesh from the facility;
  • increased demand for water and power usage for cleaning/processing/refrigeration; and
  • increased smell and noise pollution.

1(h)(i) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the concentration of animals for the purpose of commercial production in densities that exceed
    1. 20 square metres per head of cattle and more than 500 head of cattle per facility per year;
The concentration of animals in restricted areas may have the following impacts:
  • ecosystem transformation/degradation from overgrazing/improper land management;
  • disturbance of sensitive habitats/species;
  • control of waste products, associated diseases, pests, chemicals from cleaning could contaminate surrounding ecosystems;
  • odour impacts to surrounding inhabitants; and
  • water usage for feeding/cleaning.

1(h)(ii) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the concentration of animals for the purpose of commercial production in densities that exceed
    1. eight square meters per sheep and more than 1 000 sheep per facility per year;
The concentration of animals in restricted areas may have the following impacts:
  • ecosystem transformation/degradation from overgrazing/improper land management;
  • disturbance of sensitive habitats/species;
  • control of waste products, associated diseases, pests, chemicals from cleaning could contaminate surrounding ecosystems;
  • odour impacts to surrounding inhabitants; and
  • water usage for feeding/cleaning.
1(h)(iii) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the concentration of animals for the purpose of commercial production in densities that exceed
    1. eight square metres per pig and more than 250 pigs per facility per year excluding piglets that are not yet weaned;
The concentration of animals in restricted areas may have the following impacts:
  • ecosystem transformation/degradation from overgrazing/improper land management;
  • disturbance of sensitive habitats/species;
  • control of waste products, associated diseases, pests, chemicals from cleaning could contaminate surrounding ecosystems;
  • odour impacts to surrounding inhabitants; and
  • water usage for feeding/cleaning.
1(h)(iv) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the concentration of animals for the purpose of commercial production in densities that exceed
    1. 30 square metres per crocodile at any level of production, excluding crocodiles younger than 6 months;
The concentration of animals in restricted areas may have the following impacts:
  • ecosystem transformation/degradation from overgrazing/improper land management;
  • disturbance of sensitive habitats/species;
  • control of waste products, associated diseases, pests, chemicals from cleaning could contaminate surrounding ecosystems;
  • odour impacts to surrounding inhabitants; and
  • water usage for feeding/cleaning.
1(h)(v) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the concentration of animals for the purpose of commercial production in densities that exceed
    1. three square metres per head of poultry and more than 250 poultry per facility at any time, excluding chicks younger than 20 days;
The concentration of animals in restricted areas may have the following impacts:
  • ecosystem transformation/degradation from overgrazing/improper land management;
  • disturbance of sensitive habitats/species;
  • control of waste products, associated diseases, pests, chemicals from cleaning could contaminate surrounding ecosystems;
  • odour impacts to surrounding inhabitants; and
  • water usage for feeding/cleaning.
1(h)(vi) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the concentration of animals for the purpose of commercial production in densities that exceed
    1. three square metres per rabbit and more than 250 rabbits per facility at any time;
The concentration of animals in restricted areas may have the following impacts:
  • ecosystem transformation/degradation from overgrazing/improper land management;
  • disturbance of sensitive habitats/species;
  • control of waste products, associated diseases, pests, chemicals from cleaning could contaminate surrounding ecosystems;
  • odour impacts to surrounding inhabitants; and
  • water usage for feeding/cleaning.
1(h)(vii) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the concentration of animals for the purpose of commercial production in densities that exceed
    1. 100 square metres per ostrich and more than 50 ostriches per facility per year or 2500 square metres per breeding pair;
The concentration of animals in restricted areas may have the following impacts:
  • ecosystem transformation/degradation from overgrazing/improper land management;
  • disturbance of sensitive habitats/species;
  • control of waste products, associated diseases, pests, chemicals from cleaning could contaminate surrounding ecosystems;
  • odour impacts to surrounding inhabitants; and
  • water usage for feeding/cleaning.
1(i) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. aquaculture production, including mariculture and algae farms, with a product throughput of 10 000 kilograms or more per year;
Aquaculture is the farming of fish, shellfish, and other aquatic organisms. Mariculture is farming ocean organisms for food and other products. Mariculture impacts may be associated with hatcheries (land-based facilities to spawn and rear broodstock); nursery culture (rearing of young fish/shellfish) and grow out facilities where fish/shellfish are ready to harvest.

Impacts will depend upon the size of facility, type of feeding, amount of water recirculation and type of water treatment.

In addition, there is a high potential of genetic mixing with wild populations of organisms thereby weakening wild populations and making them more susceptible to disease.

Other impacts may include:
  • pollution of surrounding water by runoff from freshwater aquaculture farm operations and by chemicals, medications and surplus fish feed used on capture populations;
  • intertidal and offshore habitat degradation from pollution/development of production facilities;
  • impacts from transport infrastructure associated with the facility;
  • reduced public access to the coast by development of private facilities; and
  • visual impacts of facilities developed in coastal areas.

A strong possibility of disease introduction to wild populations also exists.
1(j) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. agri-industrial purposes, outside areas with an existing land use zoning for industrial purposes, that cover an area of 1 000 square metres or more;
Impacts may include:
  • physical impacts on ecosystems due to habitat alteration or destruction;
  • visual impact of the facility or infrastructure; and
  • disturbance of cultural heritage (archaeological and historical remains).
1(k) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the bulk transportation of sewage and water, including storm water, in pipelines with
    1. an internal diameter of 0,36 metres or more; or
    2. a peak throughput of 120 litres per second or more;
Impacts may include:
  • physical impact on ecosystems, including habitat destruction;
  • impact on the ecosystem at the final waste disposal site (i.e. storm water drains and sewage pipes often empty out directly into the sea without processing, causing severe pollution impacts on coastal/marine resources);
  • water pollution from seepage of pollution out of damaged pipes; and
  • increase in unpleasant smells associated with the project.
1(l) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the transmission and distribution of electricity above ground with a capacity of more than 33 kilovolts and less than 120 kilovolts;
Impacts may include:
  • collision and electrocution of birds thorough interaction with powerlines; and
  • visual impacts from the powerlines.

Required maintenance of powerlines may cause additional impacts (i.e. mowing of vegetation under the lines to prevent fire hazards).
1(m) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. any purpose in the one in ten year flood line of a river or stream, or within 32 metres from the bank of a river or stream where the flood line is unknown, excluding purposes associated with existing residential use, but including -
    1. canals;
    2. channels;
    3. bridges;
    4. dams; and
    5. weirs;
Physical impacts on ecosystems may occur. The channelisation of streams (creating a hard surface over which the water flows by constructing a concrete channel) destroys the integrity of the ecosystem and has vast effects on the organisms and vegetation (i.e. decreases oxygen, reduces plants and micro-organisms therefore decreasing birdlife which feeds on them.)

Bird breeding may be affected due to the reduction of safe areas for fledglings and increased danger to organisms due to flooding (water also flows faster over hard surfaces.)

Large-scale impacts from dams on downstream environments include:
  • Interruption of the natural flow of rivers leads to drying out of wetlands and the sedimentation of downstream ponds, rivers, and lakes thereby reducing essential ecosystem services.
  • Increased danger to downstream inhabitants both in terms of drought and flooding if the dam wall breaks.

Dams/weirs also present physical barriers to organisms (especially juvenile water birds).

Increased water pooling can provide habitat for insects carrying disease and could increase malaria/bilharzia.
1(n) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the off-stream storage of water, including dams and reservoirs, with a capacity of 50 000 cubic metres or more, unless such storage falls within the ambit of the activity listed in item 6 of Government Notice No. R. 387 of 2006;
See above
1(o) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the recycling, re-use, handling, temporary storage or treatment of general waste with a throughput capacity of 20 cubic metres or more daily average measured over a period of 30 days, but less than 50 tons daily average measured over a period of 30 days;
Impacts may include:
  • odour from the facility;
  • contamination of surrounding environment from inadequately stored waste (e.g. seepage of waste into groundwater and soil); and
  • impacts from infrastructure for transporting waste to and from the facility (e.g. roads, pipelines which could leak).

In addition, there may be a decrease in property values adjacent to the storage site.
1(p) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the temporary storage of hazardous waste;
Potential contamination of the surrounding environment due to improper storage and transport of hazardous waste. 

Human, livestock and wildlife health may be affected by leakage and improper storage.
1(q) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the landing, parking and maintenance of aircraft including -
    1. helicopter landing pads, excluding helicopter landing facilities and stops used exclusively by emergency services;
    2. unpaved aircraft landing strips shorter than 1,4km;
    3. structures for equipment and aircraft storage;
    4. structures for maintenance and repair;
    5. structures for fuelling and fuel storage; and
    6. structures for air cargo handling;
Impacts may include:
  • destruction or degradation of the surrounding habitat and ecosystems from the site and supporting infrastructure development;
  • water, air, and soil pollution from maintenance activities (fuel and oil spillage etc);
  • collision with aircraft may cause harm to birds;
  • air/noise pollution from air/vehicular traffic; and
  • traffic congestion and additional impacts from transport of passengers and cargo associated with the facilities.
1(r) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the outdoor racing of motor powered vehicles including -
    1. motorcars;
    2. trucks;
    3. motorcycles;
    4. quad bikes;
    5. boats; and
    6. jet skis;
Impacts may include:
  • air and noise pollution from air/vehicular/water-based traffic;
  • disturbance of wildlife and inhabitants in surrounding areas;
  • soil and water pollution from fuel spillage;
  • traffic congestion; and
  • noise impact on sensitive species and breeding grounds.
1(s) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. the treatment of effluent, wastewater or sewage with an annual throughput capacity of more than 2 000 cubic metres but less than 15 000 cubic metres;
Impacts may include:
  • groundwater and air pollution from improper waste management;
  • visual and odour impacts;
  • disease transmitted by scavengers on the dump (birds, rats, flies etc); and
  • increased vehicular traffic from transport of waste to the site might result in spillage of waste.

Additional environmental impacts may result from improper disposal of the waste sludge.
1(t) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. marinas and the launching of watercraft on inland fresh water systems;
Impacts may include:
  • damage to the ecosystem from construction;
  • water, air and noise pollution from increased water-based traffic (e.g. boat motors leak oil);
  • disturbance of aquatic organisms and of organisms and inhabitants in surrounding areas from increased traffic on land and offshore; and
  • visual impacts if developed in pristine areas.
1(u) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. above ground cableways and funiculars;
Impacts may include:
  • construction impacts on ecosystems (e.g. destruction or degradation of habitat);
  • visual impacts of cableway or funicular built in a natural area; and
  • increased access and human traffic in natural areas as a result of the facilities could cause long-term impact on the environment.
1(v) The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or infrastructure, for
  1. advertisements as defined in classes 1(a), 1(b), 1(c), 3(a), 3(b), 3(l) of the South African Manual for Outdoor Advertising Control
Billboards will have visual impacts.
2 Construction or earth moving activities in the sea or within 100 metres inland of the high-water mark of the sea, in respect of
  1. facilities for the storage of material and the maintenance of vessels; fixed or floating jetties and slipways;
  2. tidal pools;
  3. embankments;
  4. stabilising walls;
  5. buildings; or
  6. infrastructure.
Impacts may include:
  • interruption of dynamic coastal ecosystem processes (dune migration);
  • long-shore sand migration could affect the broader area (i.e. the entire cape peninsula has a complex linked sediment migration regime and interruption at one location could result in negative impacts around the entire peninsular);
  • destruction and damage to sensitive coastal vegetation;
  • immediate and long-term degradation of sensitive and essential breeding and nursery habitats for coastal and marine organisms (e.g. dunes, beaches, estuaries, coral reefs/seagrass beds) which could lead to long-term reductions of commercially important species (fish, shellfish etc);
  • visual impacts;
  • degradation from increased human traffic and resultant pollution in coastal areas;
  • any hard structures (stabilising walls, embankments, buildings etc) will impact negatively on ecosystem processes which are very complex and dynamic in coastal areas;
  • increased pollution can also lead to eutrophication (dead zones in water due to lack of oxygen) and harmful algal bloom events in coastal waters;
  • construction will impact on ecosystems;
  • pollution from maintenance activities (oil, heavy metals etc);
  • introduction of invasive alien species from ballast water and other areas of vessels (i.e. mussels etc attaching to the bottom of boats);
  • increased traffic congestion and resultant air/ noise and water pollution; and
  • pollution from vessels (oil, litter, chemicals, cargo if vessels are grounded).
3 The prevention of the free movement of sand, including erosion and accretion, by means of planting vegetation, placing synthetic material on dunes and exposed sand surfaces within a distance of 100 metres inland of the high-water mark of the sea. See (2) above

Pollution, disturbance of dynamic ecosystem processes.

4 The dredging, excavation, infilling, removal or moving of soil, sand or rock exceeding 5 cubic metres from a river, tidal lagoon, tidal river, lake, in-stream dam, floodplain or wetland. See (2) above

Dredging may degrade sensitive ecosystems and organisms that live or rely on the water body.

Dredging of the river or other water body bottom will release soil and other particulate matter into water which may result in suffocation of downstream organisms and habitats
5 The removal or damaging of indigenous vegetation of more than 10 square metres within a distance of 100 metres inland of the high-water mark of the sea. Impacts include interruption of the proper functioning of ecosystems, organisms and ecosystem processes, i.e. mangroves provide essential habitats for numerous species including commercially important ones as well as shoreline protection from storms and flooding. 

Additional impacts, may include a loss of species.
6 The excavation, moving, removal, depositing or compacting of soil, sand, rock or rubble covering an area exceeding 10 square metres in the sea or within a distance of 100 metres inland of the high-water mark of the sea. Dredging may degrade sensitive ecosystems that live in or rely on the sea or water body. Dredging of a river or other water body will release soil and other particulate matter into water which may result in suffocation of downstream or surrounding organisms and habitats.
7 The above ground storage of a dangerous good, including petrol, diesel, liquid petroleum gas or paraffin, in containers with a combined capacity of more than 30 cubic metres but less than 1 000 cubic metres at any one location or site. Impacts may include:
  • impacts on the ecosystem, habitat, plants and animals from construction of facilities and support infrastructure; and
  • potential water/air/soil pollution through leakage or damage to storage facilities and the resulting health impacts on nearby inhabitants and ecosystems/organisms.
8 Reconnaissance, prospecting, mining or retention operations as provided for in the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act, 2002 (Act No. 28 of 2002), in respect of such permissions, rights, permits and renewals thereof. Mining activities (prospecting, mining, and mining closure) may have the following impacts:
  • degradation of ecosystems by destroying and changing habitat;
  • water pollution from waste dumps;
  • increased water and energy usage;
  • noise and air pollution from transport and processing infrastructure;
  • cultural and socio-economic impacts on surrounding inhabitants (benefits from mining are rarely shared with local communities); and
  • influx of people could result in inflow of HIV/AIDS, other STDs, human transmittable diseases, prostitution, drugs, breakdown of social/cultural norms etc.
9 Until April 2007, mining applications are not subject to these new EIA regulations. DEAT and DME are developing a process that will satisfy both the environmental and mining requirements.
However, activities that are related to mining developments but are listed activities under NEMA are subject to the EIA regulations. For example, the construction of burrow pits is a listed activity under the new regulations and would require environmental authorisation even if the burrow pits are associated with a mining facility.
See above
10 The establishment of cemeteries. The impacts will depend on the scale but large cemeteries could result in loss of indigenous vegetation, disturbance of habitat and organisms, soil pollution, impacts from human traffic.
11 The decommissioning of a dam where the highest part of the dam wall, as measured from the outside toe of the wall to the highest part of the wall, is 5 metres or higher or where the high-water mark of the dam covers an area of more than 10 hectares. The decommissioning of a dam may cause flooding, erosion and sedimentation of down-stream environments and suffocation of organisms, as well as potential damage to property.

There will be environmental benefits to returning a waterway to its natural flow.
12 The transformation or removal of indigenous vegetation of 3 hectares or more or of any size where the transformation or removal would occur within a critically endangered or an endangered ecosystem listed in terms of section 52 of the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act, 2004 (Act No. 10 of 2004). Impacts may include:
  • habitat loss;
  • erosion; and
  • negative impact on populations of threatened species (vulnerable, endangered and critically endangered).
13 The abstraction of groundwater at a volume where any general authorisation issued in terms of the National Water Act, 1998 (Act No. 36 of 1998) will be exceeded. Impacts associated with the extraction of water in large quantities may be:
  • reduction of groundwater supplies and, if done in excessive quantities, could supersede replenishment levels causing collapse of water supply;
  • cumulative impacts of many people abstracting water from one groundwater source;
  • leaching of soils and salt-water intrusion if the aquifer is nearby the coast; and
  • Long-term impacts could be ecosystem degradation as well as subsidence (when the ground collapses), preventing the aquifer from being recharged and thus a total loss of a renewable resource.
14 The construction of masts of any material or type and of any height, including those used for telecommunication broadcasting and radio transmission, but excluding
  1. masts of 15 metres and lower exclusively used
    1. by radio amateurs; or
    2. for lighting purposes
  2. flag poles; and
  3. lightning conductor poles
Impacts may include:
  • visual impacts;
  • ecosystem degradation from construction of masts and supporting infrastructure;
  • disturbance of breeding sites (i.e. removal of trees in which birds nest).
15 The construction of a road that is wider than 4 metres or that has a reserve wider than 6 metres, excluding roads that fall within the ambit of another listed activity or which are access roads of less than 30 metres long. Road construction and its supporting infrastructure (e.g. toll booths) may have the following impacts:
  • ecosystem degradation by creating a barrier between ecosystems;
  • increasing road strikes of birds and wildlife (especially slow-moving organisms like frogs, tortoises);
  • soil erosion; and
  • interruption of ecosystem processes, especially if the road is built through sensitive areas (i.e streams, wetland or alongside coastal strip).

There may also be socio-economic opportunities and impacts. Increased access to remote areas may bring economic benefits but may also result in transmission of diseases like HIV, degradation of natural areas due to increased human visitation and negative impacts on local livelihoods and culture.
16 The transformation of undeveloped, vacant or derelict land to –
  1. establish infill development covering an area of 5 hectares or more, but less than 20 hectares; or
  2. residential, mixed, retail, commercial, industrial or institutional use where such development does not constitute infill and where the total area to be transformed is bigger than 1 hectare.
Impacts may include:
  • ecosystem impacts associated with construction and development (e.g. habitat destruction, impacts to animals and plants);
  • infilling of existing vacant lots could further reduce green urban areas and impact on remaining essential habitats (i.e. threatened mole species, birds);
  • further fragmentation of ecosystems, destruction of ecosystem integrity and reduction of ecosystem services; and
  • increased residential development in an area may increas demand for water and electricity supplies, and increase waste production and traffic congestion.
17 Phased activities where any one phase of the activity may be below a threshold specified in this Schedule but where a combination of the phases, including expansions or extensions, will exceed a specified threshold Cumulative impacts must be considered.
18 The subdivision of portions of land 9 hectares or larger into portions of 5 hectares or less Impacts may include:
  • ecosystem impacts associated with construction and development (e.g. habitat destruction, impacts to animals and plants); and
  • Infilling of existing vacant lots could further reduce green urban areas and impact on remaining essential habitats (i.e. threatened mole species, birds), cause further fragmentation of ecosystems, destruction of ecosystem integrity and reduction of ecosystem services.

More residential development in an area may result in increased demand on water and electricity supplies, and increase waste production and traffic congestion.
19 The development of a new facility or the transformation of an existing facility for the conducting of manufacturing processes, warehousing, bottling, packaging, or storage which, including associated structures or infrastructure, occupies an area of 1 000 square metres or more outside an existing area zoned for industrial purposes. Construction and development of a large area may have the following impacts:
  • ecosystem degradation (e.g. impacts on plants, animals and habitat);
  • increased traffic leading to congestion and more air pollution; and
  • potential for increased pollution if waste from manufacturing is not processed correctly.
20 The transformation of an area zoned for use as public open space or for a conservation purpose to another use Impacts will depend on the new purpose of the area.
21 The release of genetically modified organisms into the environment in instances where assessment is required by the Genetically Modified Organisms Act, 1997 (Act No. 15 of 1997) or the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act, 2004 (Act No. 10 of 2004). Impacts may include:
  • a reduction of biodiversity;
  • a weakening of genetic integrity of wild organisms through mixing with GMOs;
  • replacement of indigenous populations with invasive alien GMOs; and
  • unanticipated impacts on other species of flora and fauna in the ecosystem (i.e. interaction of GMOs with certain species of vegetation might destroy vegetation and catalyse soil degradation thereby having adverse effects on the entire ecosystem process).
22 The release of any organism outside its natural area of distribution that is to be used for biological pest control. Release of alien organisms may negatively impact native flora/fauna/habitats through invasion.
23 The decommissioning of existing facilities or infrastructure, other than facilities or infrastructure that commenced under an environmental authorisation issued in terms of the Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations, 2006 made under section 24(5) of the Act and published in Government Notice No. R. 385 of 2006, for
  1. electricity generation;
  2. nuclear reactors and storage of nuclear fuel;
  3. industrial activities where the facility or the land on which it is located is contaminated or has the potential to be contaminated by any material which may place a restriction on the potential to re-use the site for a different purpose;
  4. the disposal of waste;
  5. the treatment of effluent, wastewater and sewage with an annual throughput capacity of 15 000 cubic metres or more;
  6. the recycling, handling, temporary storage or treatment of general waste with a daily throughput capacity of 20 cubic metres or more; or
  7. the recycling, handling, temporary storage or treatment of hazardous waste.
A strategy should be developed to ensure the long-term cleanup of the site.
24 The recommissioning or use of any facility or infrastructure; excluding any facility or infrastructure that commenced under an environmental authorisation issued in terms of the Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations, 2006 made under section 24(5) of the Act and published in Government Notice No. R. 385 of 2006; after a period of two years from closure or temporary closure, for
  1. electricity generation;
  2. nuclear reactors and nuclear fuel storage; or
  3. facilities for any process or activity, which require permission, authorisation, or further authorisation, in terms of legislation governing the release of emissions, pollution, effluent or waste prior to the facility being recommissioned.
Possible impacts include:
  • increased water/energy usage;
  • increased pollution of air, soil and water from revived operations; and
  • impacts on residential settlements that may have been built since decommissioning (i.e. settlements that have developed next to a facility that was not in operation may be impacted by air/water/soil pollution, increased water usage, noise, traffic.)
25 The expansion of or changes to existing facilities for any process or activity; which requires an amendment of an existing permit or license, or a new permit or license in terms of legislation governing the release of emissions, pollution, effluent. Impacts will depend on the degree of expansion or type of change to the existing facility.

Could result in increased pollution and safety hazards.